Soil Moisture Workshop 2011, December 2011, Tokyo

Water Management Evaluation of Alternate Wetting and Drying Irrigation in Paddy Fields by Considering Monitored Soil Moisture

Chusnul Arif, Masaru Mizoguchi, Budi I Setiawan, Ryoichi Doi


The current study was conducted to evaluate water management of alternate wetting and drying irrigation in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) paddy fields by using the data collected from developed field monitoring system. The experimental field was located on SRI paddy field in the Nagrak Organics SRI Center (NOSC), Sukabumi West Java, Indonesia during the first rice season 2010/2011 (October 2010 to February 2011, wet season). Soil moisture was measured and monitored every 30 minutes and the data were sent daily to the server as well as meteorological data. Then, the monitored soil moisture data were used to evaluate four water managements that were classified as Wet (W), Medium (M) and Dry (D) conditions according to four growth stages. Accordingly, we called the water managements as WWWW, MMWW, MMMM and WWDD regimes for first, second, third and fourth plots, respectively. The results showed that maximum yield was produced on the WWWW and WWDD regimes as well as water productivity. Accordingly, during one season experiment of SRI paddy cultivation, the WWDD regime to be the best regime because it could save water up to 26% compare to the WWWW regime. Therefore, the field should be more saturated in the initial and crop development stages, and then drained water to make the field drier in the mid season and late stages as applied in this regime.

Key Words: Alternate wetting and drying irrigation, water management, soil moisture, monitoring

PAWEES 2011 Conference, 27 October 2011, NTU, Taiwan

Estimation of Water Balance Variables in the SRI Paddy Field by Considering Soil Moisture

Chusnul Arif, Budi I Setiawan, Masaru Mizoguchi, Ryoichi Doi


Water Balance analysis in System of Rice Intensification (SRI) paddy field is essential to evaluate water management regarding its water productivity and water use efficiency. In the observed field, however, some water balance variables are not easily measured since the methods are often costly, complicated and time consuming. The current study proposed the novel method to estimate non-measurable water balance variables by considering monitored soil moisture in the field by using Excel solver estimation. The field experiment was conducted by adopting SRI practice in the SRI experimental field in Nagrak Organics SRI Center, Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia during the first rice season 2010/2011 (October 2010 to February 2011, wet season). Results of the developed model showed satisfactory result between observed and estimated soil moisture with the values of R2 higher than 0.70 in the all growth stages. Accordingly, each estimated water balance variable has reasonable trend and value. We found that total inflows through precipitation and irrigation water were 1331.8 and 107 mm, respectively. Meanwhile, the water has leaved the field through crop evapotranspiration, runoff and percolation with their total values were 296.5, 1010.7 and 116 mm, respectively. Minimum irrigation water was needed to meet plant water requirement since no standing water and high precipitation occurred in the current wet season. Also, the total crop evapotranspiration and percolation were low according to the FAO values as the results of low reference evapotranspiration and reduction of hydrostatic pressure, respectively. On the other hand, high runoff was estimated because almost precipitation was drained directly and only retained the water in the field to meet crop evapotranspiration.

Keywords: system of rice intensification (SRI), water management, water balance, soil moisture, excel solver estimation

CIGR 2011 Conference, 19-23 September 2011, Tokyo

Field Network System to Monitor Paddy Fields in the System of Rice Intensification in Indonesia

Chusnul Arif,  Budi I Setiawan, Masaru Mizoguchi, Ryoichi Doi, Satyanto K Saptomo, Ardiansyah, Tetsu Ito


The current study was performed for establishing a field network system (FNS) to monitor paddy fields in the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) environment in Nagrak Organics SRI Center, Sukabumi, Indonesia. FNS works as a remote monitoring system which field router equipped with an in situ camera and connected to meteorological and soil data loggers. Changes in soil conditions (moisture, electrical conductivity and temperature) and meteorological parameters were measured and monitored at intervals of 30 minutes. Then, the data and plant image were daily transmitted to a remote server by means of the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) with the help of a newly developed field router. All data were made accessible online at as images in addition to numeric and graphic data. There were four experimental plots with different water management regimes; continuously saturated soil (CSS) in the first plot, incompletely saturated soil (ISS) in the second plot, moderate soil drying (MSD) in the third plot and severe soil drying (SSD) in the fourth plot. In the CSS regime, the soil was kept saturated or at water levels -5 to 0 cm depth as recommended by SRI training center in Indonesia; while for ISS regime, the soil was kept drier than the CSS regime at water levels of -15 to -5 cm depth. Moderate soil drying was applied at water levels of -30 to -5 cm depth in the MSD regime and the last regime (SSD regime), severe soil drying was applied at water levels -60 to -10 cm depth particularly from 70 day after transplanting. Based on the findings of the experiment along a single crop season, the FNS run well and was reliable in the monitoring of the plants, meteorological and soil parameters. However, stability of the field router depends on the field solar power supply and the Internet connection. In case there is problem in the Internet connection within data transmitting time, the images data were lost. The images data showed the series of SRI plant growth from a tiny seedling to a large cover area and facilitating evaluation of each growth stage. With the numeric data, the water productivity could be well determined and the values were 1.95, 2.01, 1.51 and 2.04 kg/m3 for CSS, ISS, MSD and SSD regimes, respectively. In addition, the evaluation of water management regimes revealed that in the CSS and MSD regimes, the soil should be more saturated to gain more yield and water productivity particularly in the early stage to the crop development stage as occurred in the ISS and SSD regimes.

Keywords: System of Rice Intensification, Environmental Parameters, Irrigation system, Field Network System, Quasi-real time monitoring

PAWEES 2010 Conference, 27-29 October 2010, Jeju, South Korea

Crop Coefficient of Paddy under System of Rice Intensification (SRI) Environment

Chusnul Arif, Hanhan A. Sofiyuddin, Lolly M. Martief, Budi I Setiawan, Masaru Mizoguchi, Ryoichi Doi

Since re-introduced in the 1980s in Madagascar, the System of Rice Intensification  (SRI) is known as innovative paddy cultivation to produce more rice with less water. SRI implement irrigation schema intermittently that is regarded efficient, water saving as well as active soil aeration. The basic concepts of SRI are single planting with younger seedling (7-14 days after seeding) at wider spacing, applied intermittent irrigation, organic fertilizer, and very active soil aeration (Uphoff et al. 2008; Stoop et al.

Water management is a vital element in SRI practice, however, its irrigation regimes during crop season to achieve optimal soil moisture is not clear yet. Crop coefficient, Kc, indicates the relative ability of a specific crop-soil surface to meet the water demand (Allen et al. 1990). Kc is generally empirical ratio of crop evapotranspiration (ETc) to reference evapotranspiration (ETo) derived from experimental data. Numerous studies about Kc of paddy in several Asian countries have been investigated (Attarod et al. 2006; Tyagi, et al. 2000; Mohan and Arumugam 1994). However, Allen et al. (1990) has suggested that crop coefficient value need to be derived empirically for each crop based on local climatic condition. The current study, therefore, was undertaken with the objectives to determine Kc of paddy during growing period under SRI paddy cultivation system based on water balance analysis.

This study was conducted in SRI Field Trial in Karang Sari village, district of Cikarang Timur, Bakasi, West Java, Indonesia during the first rice season 2007/2008 (December 2007 to April 2008) in wet season. The field is located at 6o14’16” South latitude and 107o12’30” East longitude. The soil was alluvial type and heavy clay texture with soil pH 5.8 and low organic matter (1.7%). Field research was carried out under natural environment. Maximum temperature was reached 32.0oC-33.8oC on September and it  average was 27.6oC. SRI practice was applied to cultivate a local hybrid cultivar, Sintanur, and its elements were single planting with seedling of 10 days, spacing of 30 x 30 cm2 and used indigenous microorganism and organic fertilizer to improve soil fertility and crop health.

For water management practice, the field was kept saturated at zero level of water level in the early stage (0-7 day after transplanting (DAT)) and then the soil was kept moist enough during 7 to 40 DAT. Ponding water was given at level 2 cm until the age of plant up to 75 DAT and then the fields were dried after 75 DAT. On other hand, during the first and second growing stages, water level was kept very low at zero level and low level on the next stages.

In this study, Kc was derived in daily basis; however, analyzing each value was given based on growth stage. Here, it was divided into four stages, namely; initial (I), crop development (II), mid-season/reproductive (III) and late season (IV) (Tyagi et al. 2000; Mohan and Arumugam 1994). The initial stage happened when the plant age 1-15 DAT, while crop development stage (16-40 DAT) occurred when plant focused on vegetative phase to panicle initiation. Reproductive and late season stages occurred from panicle initiation to flowering and then became full maturity during 41-70 DAT and 71-90 DAT, respectively.

Daily crop coefficient revealed great changes in most planting period. Hence, Kalman filter equation was used to filter the data and make it smoother to show the trend. During the first stage to second stage, it was gradually increasing because plant get growing and increasing the transpiration rate. However, during the second stage, crop coefficient declined and then increased again. This is due to at that moment the soil was dried and its water levels were too low which probably reduced the evaporation rate. The peak rate of Kc values reached in third stage when plant canopy shaded the water surface entirely. Then, it gradually decreased until harvesting time.

The averages Kc values for initial, crop development, reproductive and late season were 0.73, 1.08, 1.26 and 1.23 respectively. In the first and second stages, Kc values of current study were lower than the FAO recommendation seemingly attributed that SRI applied single planting which is associated to lower transpiration rate in early stage. However, in the third and fourth stages Kc values higher than the FAO recommendation which pointed out SRI cultivation system promotes the production of rice more during the reproductive stage. Overall, both Kc in current study and the FAO recommendation decreased in the late stage by reducing transpiration rate during maturation.

Keywords: the system of rice intensification, crop coefficient, water balance analysis, optimization.

Jurnal Irigasi – Vol. 3, No. 2, November 2008
(Determination of Drip Irrigation Schedule for Plant Growth in Greenhouse using Artificial Intelligence Approach)
Chusnul Arif

Generally scheduling of drip irrigation system in greenhouse is done manually thatcaused significant losses in water and nutrient The objective of this paper is to determine drip irrigation schedule using Artificial Intelligence approach that was consist Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA). ANN model was used to predict losses number of water and nutrient; while GA model was used to optimize drip irrigation schedule that is consist of duration and interval of water and nutrient supply.ANN model consists of three layers, they were input teyer, hidden layer and output layer. As input parameters were micro environment and plant condition while as output parameter was losses number of water and nutrient. The objective of GA model was to determine duration and interval of water and nutrient supply with minimize of losses number of water and nutrient supply. From the study case showed that on 24 day after planting, the optimal duration of water and nutrient supply was 300 second with the interval of water and nutrient supply was 4 hours.

Keywords: drip irrigation, greenhouse, artificial intelligence.
To download Full paper please sent email to: chusnul_ar[at]


Optimization of EC Values of Nutrient Solution for Tomato Fruits Quality in Hydroponics System Using Artificial Neural Network and Genetic Algorithms

Herry Suhardiyanto1, Chusnul Arif2 & Budi I. Setiawan3

1,2,3Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia


Total soluble solids (TSS) and fruit fresh weight are two indicators to show the quality of tomato fruits. To gain high values of TSS and fruit fresh weight, it is important to consider the concentration of nutrient solution, which is commonly represented by Electrical Conductivity (EC) value. Generally, the increasing of EC value not only increases the number of TSS, but also decreases fruit fresh weight. Therefore, it is important to optimize the EC value for both indicators of quality of tomato fruits. The objective of this research is to optimize the EC value of nutrient solution on each generative stage using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA). ANN was used to identify the relationship between different EC value treatments with TSS value and fruit fresh weight. GA was applied to determine the optimal EC value in generative growth, which is divided into three stages. Results showed that the optimal EC values in the flowering stage, the fruiting stage and the harvesting stage were 1.4 mS/cm, 10.2 mS/cm and 9.7 mS/cm, respectively. Using these values, a tomato fruit could be estimated with TSS value of 7.9% and fruit fresh weight of 51.34 g.

Keywords: artificial neural network, genetic algorithm, hydroponics, tomato fruits quality.

Download Full paper : Publised Paper 2

Bul. Agron. (36) (1) 92 – 99 (2008)
Herry Suhardiyanto, Chusnul Arif, Suroso
Diterima 4 Januari 2008/Disetujui 31 Maret 2008
A computer program for fertigation scheduling in a hydroponics system has been developed using Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Genetic Algorithms (GA). The ANN model was used to establish the relationship between the environmental factors and outflow volume of fertigation in a hydroponics system for cucumber. The result showed that the predicted outflow volume agreed well with those of the measured values. The correlation coefficients (R2) between the predicted and measured values were 0.9673, 0.9432, and 0.8248 for vegetative, flowering and maturation stages, respectively. Optimum schedules for vegetative, flowering, and maturation stages were in a good coincidence at R2 of 0.8808 with the amount of fertigation required by the plants as calculated using the empirical method.
Key words : System identification, optimization, plant water consumption, fertigation, hydroponics

Download Full paper: Publised Paper

Dear visitor,

Thank you for visiting my personal website.

As you may know well that a lecturer at a university in Indonesia is obliged to undertake Tridarma Perguruan Tinggi, which means three kind of works such as teaching, research and extension, and plus supporting activities. This website informs you about my activities and achievements as an a academician working at Bogor Agricultural University (IPB).

I was graduated from this university in 2003 for Undergraduate and 2008 for Master degree. My common interest is environmental information and control. Now, I am pursuing PhD degree in the University of Tokyo

I hope you will know me better after you visit my website, and it is my honor if you are then willing to have intense communications with me. Thank you again for visiting my website.

Best regards,

Chusnul Arif